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dog By:Vianney Arellano
Period:3
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Table Of Contents

1................................Introduction
2................................What are Dogs?
3................................Their origin and evolution
4................................Dogs and their popularity
5................................Sight,hearing,and smell
6................................Behavior and Intelligence
7................................Dog Health
8................................Religion
9................................Conclusion
10..............................Bibliography

Page 1

Introduction
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Have you ever wanted a dog(s) as a pet(s)?Well if you did then you should know about them right?If you don't you'll never know why they get sick or why they don't eat their food.This report will help you know things about dogs that you might have never known.
Though not all dogs are same but they usually need the same things.So you should start reading ^_^

Page 2

What are Dogs?
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A dog is a domesticated animal of a wolf a mammal of the Canidae family of the order carnivora.The domestic dog has been (and still is) one of the most widely-kept working and companion animals in human history, also being a food source in some cultures. There are estimated to be 400,000,000 dogs in the world.
The dog has developed into hundreds of varied breeds. Height measured to the withers ranges from a few inches in the Chihuaha to a few feet in the Irish Wolfhound color varies from white through grays (usually called blue) to black, and browns from light (tan) to dark ("red" or "chocolate") in a wide variation of patterns; and, coats can be very short to many centimeters long, from coarse hair to
something akin to wool, straight or curly, or smooth.

Page 3

Their origin and evolution
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The domestic dog descends from one or more wolves.They are also able to interbreed with wild wolves.The relationship between human and canine has deep roots.
Based on DNA evidence, the wolf ancestors of modern dogs diverged from other wolves about 100,000 years ago, and dogs were domesticated from those wolf ancestors about 15,000 years ago. This date would make dogs the first species to be domesticated by humans.Evidence suggests that dogs were first domesticated in East Asia, possibly China and some of the peoples who entered North America took dogs with them from Asia.

Page 4

Dogs and their popularity
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The popularity in breeds vary around the world and in time.In some places there are a large amount of a certain kind of dog.The Larbador Retriver has been the most popular dog in the United States since about 1991.Thought that doesn't mean it's the only popular dog.Around 2005 the poodle was very popular in New York and the next year it changes so all the dogs get their own time for popularity.Small dogs usually end up being popular longer than other dogs.Popularity isn't so important but a good topic.This page will be very short because of that.

Page 5

Sight,hearing,and smell
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Sight
Ok first off...this might be the longest page and the most helpful on as well v_v so don't blame be because it's long you people need to know this :D ok let me start now D:.
Like most mammals dogs are dichromats and have color vision equivalent to red-green color blindness in humans.Different breeds of dogs have different eye shapes and dimensions they also have different retina configurations. Dogs with long noses have a "visual streak" which runs across the width of the retina and gives them a very wide field of excellent vision, while those with short noses have an "area centrail"a central patch with up to three times the density of nerve endings as the visual streak giving them detailed sight much more like a human's.Some breeds, particularly the sighthounds have vision up to 270° compared to 180° for humans, although broad-headed breeds with short noses have a much narrower field of vision, as low as 180
Hearing
Dogs detect sounds as low as the 16 to 20 Hz frequency range (compared to 20 to 70 Hz for humans) and above 45 kHz (compared to 13 to 20 kHz for humans) and in addition have a degree of ear mobility that helps them to rapidly pinpoint the exact location of a sound. Eighteen or more muscles can tilt rotate and raise or lower a dog's ear. Also a dog can identify a sound's location much faster than a human can, as well as hear sounds up to four times the distance that humans are able to. Those with more natural ear shapes like those of wild canids like the fox generally hear better than those with the floppier ears of many domesticated species.
Smell
Dogs have almost 220 million smellsensitive cells over an area about the size of a pocket hankerchief (compared to 5 million over an area the size of a postage stamp for humans). Some breeds have been selectively bred for excellence in detecting scents even compared to their canine brethren. What information a dog actually detects when he is scenting is not perfectly understood although once a matter of debate it now seems to be well established that dogs can distinguish two different types of scents when trailing, an air scent from some person or thing that has recently passed by, as well as a ground scent that remains detectable for a much longer period. The characteristics and behavior of these two types of scent trail would seem after some thought, to be quite different, the air scent being intermittent but perhaps less obscured by competing scents, whereas the ground scent would be relatively permanent with respect to careful and repetitive search by the dog, but would seem to be much more contaminated with other scents. In any event it is established by those who train tracking dogs that it is impossible to teach the dog how to track any better than it does naturally the object instead is to motivate it properly, and teach it to maintain focus on a single track and ignore any others that might otherwise seem of greater interest to an untrained dog. An intensive search for a scent, for instance searching a ship for contraband, can actually be very fatiguing for a dog, and the dog must be motivated to continue this hard work for a long period of time.
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Page 6

Behavior and Intelligence

Dogs are very social animals but their personality and behavior vary with breed as well as how they are treated by their owners and others who come in contact with them. It is not uncommon for dogs to attack humans and other animals however, this is usually because of lack of care or improper upbringing by its owner.Dogs tend to be poorer than wolves and coyotes at observational learning, being more responsive to intrumentinoal conditioning. Feral dogs show little of the complex social structure or dominance hierarchy present in wolf packs. For dogs, other members of their kind are of no help in locating food items, and are more like competitors. Dogs are valued for their intelligence. This intelligence is made differently with different breeds and kinds however. For example Border Collies are noted for their ability to learn commands while other breeds may not be so motivated towards obedience, but instead show their cleverness in devising ways to steal food or escape from a yard. Being highly adaptable animals themselves, dogs have learned to do many jobs as required by humans over the generations.

Page 7

Dog Health

Ok...dog health is also a very important thing now that you know how a dog smell and hear you need to know why they get sick or why they die and all that stuff :o.I wonder why i'm putting all the important things in the end? ;;>.>.Ok let me start DX
Dog health is very important and is about many things like diseases,physical disorders, and morality.I will start off with
diseases.
Infectious diseases commonly associated with dogs include rabies (hydrophobia), canine parvovirus, and canine distemper. Inherited diseases of dogs can include a wide range from elbow or hip dysplasia and medial patellar luxation to epilepsy and pulmonic stenosis. Canines can get just about anything a human can get (excluding many infections which are species specific) like hypothyroidism, cancer, dental disease, heart disease, etc.
Two serious medical conditions affecting dogs are pyometra affecting unspayed females of all types and ages, and bloat which affects the larger breeds or deep chested dogs. Both of these are acute conditions, and can kill rapidly; owners of dogs which may be at risk should learn about such conditions as part of good animal care.

Page 8

Religion
Dogs are part of religion as well some see them as gods...or in their ancestors and culture and some only keep them for hunting or killing.Some people go against the contries and religions that hurt dogs but it can't be helped because it's rare when a religion changes.Dogs aren't really in religions so this might be the smallest page.Dog_worship_in_Hinduism.jpg

Page 9

Conclusion

Well now I think you now about a dog right?Well they are one of the best animals and should be taken care of because they are almost like a human and they have come a long way.Before we knew nothing about them but now that we do we don't care to know.I was very specific so i deserve a good grade right???^_^